UlarSumber dari wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Ular adalah reptil apa tak berkaki dan bertubuh panjang. Garis memiliki sisik seperti kadalSquamata). Perbedaan adalah kadal diatas umumnya berkaki, luaran lubang telinga, dan kelopak mata apa dapat dibuka tutup. Ini adalah tetapi untuk kasus-kasus kadal tak berkaki (misalnya Ophisaurus dan sama-sama digolongkan setelah dalam reptil bersisik ( spp.) selisih ini dulu kabur dan noël dapat dijadikan pegangan.

Habitat dan Makanan

Ular merupakan salah satu reptil yang paling sukses berkembang di dunia. Di gunung, hutan, gurun, dataran rendah, lahan pertanian, lingkungan pemukiman, sampai usai lautan, dapat tersadar ular. Hanya saja, sebagaimana umumnya hewan berdarah dingin, garis semakin langka ditemui di tempat-tempat yang dingin, kemudian di puncak-puncak gunung, di quenn Irlanda dan Selandia baru dan daerah daerah padang mata atau kutub.

Anda sedang menonton: Makanan anak ular baru menetas

Banyak jenis-jenis garis yang sepanjang hidupnya berkelana di pepohonan dan hampir tak pernah menginjak tanah. Crowd jenis yang lain hidup melata di ~ permukaan negara atau menyusup-nyusup dibawah serasah atau tumpukan bebatuan. Sementara sebagian apa lain lives akuatik atau semi-akuatik di sungai-sungai, rawa, danau dan laut.Ular memangsa berbagai types hewan lebih small dari tubuhnya. Ular-ular terlalu banyak air memangsa ikan, kodok, berudu, dan kelewat telur ikan. Ular pohon dan ular darat memangsa burung, mamalia, kodok, jenis-jenis reptil apa lain, implisit telur-telurnya. Ular-ular besar seperti ular sanca kembang dapat memangsa kambing, kijang, rusa dan kelewat manusia.

Kebiasaan dan Reproduksi

Ular memakan mangsanya bulat-bulat; artinya, tidak punya dikunyah dulu keping-keping yang lebih kecil. Gigi di mulut ular tidak memiliki fungsi buat mengunyah, melainkan sekedar karena memegang mangsanya agar noël mudah terlepas. Agar lancar menelan, ular biasanya pilihan menelan mangsa dengan kepalanya lebih dahulu.Beberapa types ular, sebagai sanca dan ular tikus, membunuh prins dengan cara melilitnya hingga tak bisa ~ bernapas. Ular-ular berbisa membunuh prins dengan bisanya, yang dapat melumpuhkan asetnya saraf saluran pernafasan dan jantung (neurotoksin), atau yang dapat membongkar peredaran darah (haemotoksin), batin beberapa menit saja. Bisa yang disuntikkan malalui gigitan garis itu tradisional sekaligus berhubungan dengan enzim pencerna, yang memudahkan pencernaan memberi makan itu apabila telah ditelan.Untuk menghangatkan berbadan dan juga untuk tolong kelancaran pencernaan, ular kerap kali perlu berjemur (basking) under sinar matahari.Kebanyakan jenis garis berkembang biak dengan bertelur. Jumlah telurnya bisa beberapa butir saja, hingga puluhan dan ratusan butir. Ular meletakkan telurnya di lubang-lubang tanah, gua, lubang woods lapuk, ataukah di bawah timbunan daun-daun kering. Pemfitnahan jenis ular diketahui menunggui telurnya hingga menetas; bahkan garis sanca ‘mengerami’ telur-telurnya.Sebagian ular, seperti ular kadut belang, garis pucuk dan garis bangkai laut ‘melahirkan’ anak. Sebetulnya noel melahirkan seperti halnya mamalia, melainkan telurnya berkembang dan menetas di dalam tubuh induknya (ovovivipar
), lalu keluar sebagai ular kecil-kecil.Sejenis garis primitif, yakni ular buta atau ular kawat Rhampotyphlops braminus, sejauh ini just diketahui yang betinanya. Ular yang mirip cacing small ini diduga mampu bertelur dan berbiak tanpa garis jantan (partenogenesis).

Macam-macam Ular

Ular ada apa berbisa (memiliki racun, venom/venomous), namun kerumunan pula yang tidak. Become tetapi noel perlu terlalu kuatir bila temu ular. Dari antara yang berbisa, kebanyakan bisanya noël cukup kerusakan bagi manusia. Lagipula, umumnya ular pergi menghindar bila pertemuan orang.Ular-ular primitif, such ular kawat, ular karung, ular kepala dua, dan garis sanca, noël berbisa. Ular-ular apa berbisa kebanyakan termasuk suku Colubridae
; menjadi tetapi bisanya umumnya lemah saja. Ular-ular apa berbisa kokoh di Indonesia biasanya termasuk usai dalam salah satu suku ular berikut: Elapidae (ular sendok, ular belang, ular cabai, dll.), Hydrophiidae (ular-ular laut), dan Viperidae (ular tanah, ular bangkai laut, garis bandotan).Beberapa jenisnya, kemudian contoh:suku Typhlopidae suku Cylindrophiidae suku Pythonidae garis peraca (P. Curtus)ular sanca hijau. (Morelia viridis")suku Acrochordidae kesukuan Xenopeltidae
*

*

ular babi (Elaphe flavolineata)ular sapi (Zaocys carinatus)suku Elapidae ular cabai (Maticora intestinalis)ular weling (Bungarus candidus)ular king-cobra (Ophiophagus hannah)suku Viperidae ular bandotan puspo (Vipera russelli)ular negara (Calloselasma rhodostoma)-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Snakes
space elongate, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes that can be differentiated from legless lizards by dari mereka lack of eyelids and external ears. Favor all squamates, snakes space ectothermic, amniote vertebrates spanned in overlapping scales. Many types of snakes have actually skulls with many an ext joints than dari mereka lizard ancestors, enabling them to swallow prey much larger than their heads with milik mereka highly mobile jaws. To accommodate dari mereka narrow bodies, snakes" paired organs (such together kidneys) appear one in prior of the other rather of side by side, and paling have only one functional lung. Some species retain a pelvic girdle with a pair of vestigial claws on either side of the cloaca.
Living line are uncovered on every continent other than Antarctica and on most islands. Fifteen family members are at this time recognized, making up 456 genera and also over 2,900 varieties They range in dimension from the tiny, 10cm-long thread line to pythons and anacondas of up to 7.6metres (25 ft) in length. The recently discovered fossil Titanoboa to be 15metres (49 ft) long. Snakes are komandan to have progressed from either burrowing or aquatic lizards throughout the Cretaceous titik (c 150 Ma). The diversity of modern snakes showed up during the Paleocene period (c 66 come 56 Ma).
Most types are nonvenomous and itu that have venom use it generally to kill and subdue prey quite than for self-defense. Some possess venom potent enough to reason painful cedera or death to humans. Nonvenomous snakes one of two people swallow food alive or death by constriction.

Etymology

The english word snake originates from Old english snaca, karakter itu from Proto-Germanic *snak-an- (cf. Jerman Schnake "ring snake," swedish snok "grass snake"), indigenous Proto-Indo-European root *(s)nēg-o- "to crawl, creep," which also gave sneak and also Sanskrit nāgá "snake." the word ousted adder, as adder walk on to small in meaning, despite in Old bahasa inggris næddre to be the general word because that snake.The various other term, serpent, is from French, ultimately from Indo-European *serp- (to creep), which also gave Greek érpo (ερπω) "I crawl."

Evolutio

The fossil document of line is reasonably poor due to the fact that snake skeletons space typically small and fragile, untuk membuat fossilization uncommon. However, 150 million-year-old specimens, conveniently identifiable together snakes, yet through lizard-like bones structures, have been uncovered in southern America and also Africa. Over there is consensus, top top the mengurung of to compare anatomy, the snakes descended from lizards. Fossil evidence argues that snakes might have evolved from burrowing lizards, seperti as the varanids or a similar group throughout the Cretaceous Period. An early fossil snake, Najash rionegrina, was a two-legged burrowing pet with a sacrum, and also was fully terrestrial. One extant serupa of these putative ancestors is the earless oversaw Lanthanotus the Borneo, back it juga is semiaquatic. Subterranean formulir evolved body that were streamlined for burrowing and also lost their limbs. Follow to this hypothesis, features sebagai as the transparent, unify eyelids (brille) and also loss of external ears progressed to cope v fossorial difficulies, sebagai as scratched corneas and also dirt in the ears. Some primitive line are well-known to have possessed hindlimbs, but milik mereka pelvic bones short a direct link to the vertebrae. These incorporate fossil species like Haasiophis, Pachyrhachis and Eupodophis, which are slightly older 보다 Najash.
Primitive groups amongst the modern snakes, pythons and also boas, have vestigial hind limbs; tiny, clawed digits known as anal spurs, i beg your pardon they usage to grasp during mating. Leptotyphlopidae and Typhlopidae space other teams where remnants the the pelvic girdle room present, sometimes appearing as horny projections when visible. The frontal limbs are missing in all snakes,
and this loss is connected with the development of the Hox genes regulating limb morphogenesis. The axial skeleton that the snakes" usual ancestor, like most other tetrapods, had regional specializations consist of of cervical (neck), thoracic (chest), lumbar (lower back), sacral (pelvic) and caudal (tail) vertebrae. The Hox gen expression in the axial skeleton responsible because that the development of the thorax became dominant at an early stage in line evolution and as a result, the vertebrae anterior to the hindlimb buds (when present) all have actually the exact same thoracic-like identity (except indigenous the atlas, axis and also one to 3 neck vertebrae), making most of the snake"s skeleton being composed of really extended thorax. Ribs are found exclusively on the thoracic vertebrae. The neck, lumbar and pelvic vertebrae are an extremely reduced in numberi (only two to ten lumbar and also pelvic vertebrae space still present), while only a short tail remains of the caudal vertebrae, although the tail is still long enough to be of great use in countless species, and also is modification in part aquatic and also tree dwelling species.An different hypothesis, based upon morphology, suggests the ancestors of snakes dulu related come mosasaurs — extinction aquatic reptiles native the Cretaceous—which in turn are komandan to have derived from varanid lizards. Dibawah this hypothesis, the fused, transparent eyelids of line are memikirkan to have developed to combat marine problems (corneal water-loss through osmosis), while the exterior ears menjadi lost through disuse in an aquatic environment, ultimately leading come an animal comparable in appearance come sea line of today. In the so late Cretaceous, line recolonized floor to appear as they space today. Fossil snake continues to be are known from beforehand Late Cretaceous maritime sediments, i m sorry is consistent with this hypothesis, specifically as they room older than the terrestrial Najash rionegrina. Comparable skull structure, reduced/absent limbs, and also other anatomical features discovered in both mosasaurs and snakes result in a hopeful cladistical correlation, although few of these features are common with varanids. In current years, genetic studies have actually indicated snakes are not as carefully related to oversaw lizards together it was once believed, and therefore no to mosasaurs, the suggest ancestor in the aquatic scenario of anda evolution. However, there is more evidence linking mosasaurs to snakes 보다 to varanids. Fragmentary continues to be that have actually been found from the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous indicate deeper fossil documents for this groups, i beg your pardon may eventually refute either hypothesis.The great diversity of modernis snakes showed up in the Paleocene, correlating with the adaptive radiation the mammals adhering to the die out of the nonavian dinosaurs. One of the more common teams today, the colubrids, became particularly diverse early out to milik mereka preying top top rodents, a mammal team that has actually been an especially successful. There room over 2,900 varieties of snakes varying as far northward together the Arctic circle in Scandinavia and also southward through Australia and also Tasmania. Snakes have the right to be uncovered on every continent (with the exemption of Antarctica), populated in the sea, and also as high together 16,000 feet (4,900 m)in the Himalayan mountains of Asia. There are numerous kepulauan from which snakes space absent, seperti as Ireland, Iceland, and new Zealand.

Taxonomy

All modern snakes are grouped within the suborder Serpentes in Linnean taxonomy, component of the stimulate Squamata, though dari mereka precise placement in ~ squamates is controversial.There room two infraorders the Serpentes: Alethinophidia and also Scolecophidia. This separation is based on morphological characteristics and mitochondrial DNA succession similarity. Alethinophidia is sometimes separation into Henophidia and Caenophidia, through the last consisting of "colubroid" snake (colubrids, vipers, elapids, hydrophiids, and also attractaspids) and acrochordids, kapan the various other alethinophidian families make up Henophidia. While not extant today, the Madtsoiidae, a family of giant, primitive, python-like snakes, was roughly until 50,000 years back in Australia, represented by genera such as Wonambi.There are numerous debates in the systematics within the group. Because that instance, plenty of sources classify Boidae and also Pythonidae together one family, while some store the Elapidae and also Hydrophiidae (sea snakes) separate for handy reasons despite anda extremely nearby relation.Recent molecular research studies support the monophyly of the clades of modernis snakes, scolecophidians, typhlopids + anomalepidids, alethinophidians, main point alethinophidians, uropeltids (Cylindrophis, Anomochilus, uropeltines), macrostomatans, booids, boids, pythonids and also caenophidians.

Lihat lainnya: Silver Night Cream ( Krim Siang Malam Untuk Kulit Berjerawat

<6>

Skeleton

The skeleton of paling snakes is composed solely that the skull, hyoid, vertebral column, and also ribs, despite henophidian snakes maintain vestiges of the pelvis and also rear limbs. The skull of the snake is composed of a solid and complete braincase, to which plenty of of the various other bones are just loosely attached, specifically the highly mobile jaw bones, which facilitate manipulation and also ingestion of besar prey items. The left and also right sides of the reduced jaw room joined just by a flexible ligament at the anterior tips, permitting them to separate widely, kapan the posterior end of the lower jaw skeleton articulate v a quadrate bone, allowing lebih jauh mobility. The skeletal of the mandible and also quadrate skeletal can also pick up ground borne vibrations. The hyoid is a small bone situated posterior and ventral to the skull, in the "neck" region, i m sorry serves as an attachment for muscles the the snake"s tongue, together it melakukan in all other tetrapods.The vertebral column is composed of anywhere between 200–400 (or more) vertebrae. Tail vertebrae are comparatively couple of in mageri (often less than 20% the the total) and lack ribs, while body vertebrae each have two ribs articulating v them. The vertebrae have actually projections that permit for strong muscle attachment permitting locomotion without limbs. Autotomy the the tail, a feature uncovered in part lizards is lacking in paling snakes.Caudal autotomy in snake is rare and is intervertebral, unlike that in lizards, i beg your pardon is intravertebral—that is, the break happens bersama a predefined fracture plane present on a vertebra.