Indonesia has actually been a kepala destination because that telecom industry actors due to the fact that of the potentiality in produksi an investment. In kondisi of population, Indonesia has more than 250 juta residents, which kekuasaan it akan the 4th largest populated country in the world. Consequently, v a high numberi of populations, the may bring about a high mageri of subscribers and indirectly could make telecom companies obtain a high profit. Top top one hand, this possibility seems really interesting. Top top the other hand, it juga might it is in a tantangan because there are numerous companies established anda business in seperti market, therefore the telecom pasar in Indonesia has actually turn out to it is in a dynamic and also highly competitive industry.
Anda sedang menonton: Daftar operator seluler di indonesia
HistoryStarted in 1984, NMT (Nordic mobile Phone) to be a an initial cellular network which was introduced in Indonesia. Kemudian after 1993, GSM (Global mechanism for Mobile) was obtaining popularity. Throughout that decade, three big mobile operators provide the service: PT. Satelindo (Indosat), PT. Komunikasi Selular (Telkomsel), Excelcomindo (XL Axiata). Throughout 1999, these 3 operators manage around 2.5 juta subscribers in total <1>.The sourse of subscriber keeps increasing throughout the years, reach to an ext than 300 juta subscribers in 2015. To manage sebagai high mageri of demand, over there are plenty of actors affiliated in different roles and function.
Figure 1. growth of number of Subscriber in Indonesia
Regulator and also Telecom Vendors
Varying duties are affiliated in this Industry, however the crucial actors space the regulator, network provider, and also mobile operator. Ministry of communication and informatics is responsible because that conducting a regulation in order to regulate Indonesian telecommunication issues, such as spectrum allocation, laws, to work license, and so forth. Because that telecom vendors, Huawei technology Investment (Huawei) dominated as a network provider, adhered to by Ericsson Indonesia (EID), Nokia equipment Network (NSN) and ZTE. Sebelum 2010, EID and also NSN command the markets, however, a bilateral political and also economic relation between Indonesia and also China during these year might menggunakan Huawei come put much investment and overtake the pasar <2>.
In mobile operators, there room four huge companies conquer in providing cellular services: PT. Komunikasi Selular (Telkomsel), PT. Indosat Ooredeoo (Indosat), PT. Tri Hutchinson (Tri), PT. XL Axiata (XL). Among those four companies, Telkomsel has actually a high domination on numerous aspects. As previously mentioned, Indonesia has an ext than 300 juta subscribers, and half of them room Telkomsel’s customers. Telkomsel is a crucial subsidiary from PT. Telkom Tbk., i m sorry is a state-owned telecommunications enterprise and also a kepala contributor because that Indonesia’s telecommunication facilities deployment. Telkomsel owned 103,289 BTS which spreading throughout Indonesia. This is a substantial number, nearly twice as plenty of as Indosat’s BTS. The to compare on sourse of subscribers, BTS frequency allocation and market bagikan between operators can be checked out on Table 1.
|Operator||Subscribers (million)||BTS (thousand)||FrequencyAllocation||Market share|
|900 GSM & LTE|
|1800 DCS & LTE (MHz)||2100 UMTS (MHz)|
|Telkomsel||152||103||7.5||22.5||3 x 5||45 %|
|Indosat||66||52||7.5||20||2 x 5||21.6 %|
|Tri Hutchinson||50||39||–||10||2 x 5||14.4 %|
|XL Axiata||46||59||10||22.5||3 x 5||14 %|
By having actually this data, the market posting ulang is rather predictable. Through a high numberi of customers and vast infrastructure, it is noticeable the Telkomsel might be a leader in this sector. Telkomsel is leading through 45% market share in the mobile communication sector. In addition, there are smaller mobile operator companies (e.g. Smartfren, Bolt, Ceria) that only owned approximately 5% that Indonesia’s telecom pasar share. <4>
Telecom market Analysis
In 2015, minister of communication and also informatics in Indonesia declared that there space nine operators that run the telecom service in Indonesia. It absolutely has increased market competition. Each firm wants to have countless customers with the high ARPU (Average Revenue every User). The very first solution is to save the price together low as possible, which would certainly attract more customers. As a result, over there is a tight pricing war between operators. Because that instance, if we space a customer from Telkomsel, we can buy 1.5 GB quota per month v Rp. 100,000 (~68 SEK). Imagine this price has actually set, v a high infrastructure cost which to work in a complicated geographic instance in Indonesia (since Indonesia is an archipelago negara and has plenty of mountains top top its islands). Moreover, Indosat surprisingly provides 8 GB (3 GB because that 3G service, 5 GB because that 4G Service) for just Rp 80,000 (~54 SEK). <11>
However, this kekuasaan operator companies have really low marginal revenue. Traffic need has to be increasing, however the revenue that operator can earn from the data web traffic is pretty low (compared to voice traffic). Come satisfy setiap orang demand, the operator needs to upgrade the infrastructure which memerlukan more resources expenditure, yet dari mereka business is not growing due to the fact that of the kecil profit or they might have a net loss.
The 2nd solution is the agency acquisition, sebagai as XL merger with Axis and also became XL Axiata. In this case, XL mungkin use Axis’s spectrum and also imply a spectrum aggregation then expand the network. Nevertheless, XL still requirements to save the jae won balance and also currently they are selling their towers to try covering the high net hutang <12>.
In general, telecom actors need to find brand-new business instances to trigger a brand-new kind the revenue since they cannot rely on the data traffic business anymore. B2B (Business to Business) covenant is awal to it is in interesting. Many operators nowadays cooperate through equipment- and content-provider. For example, there are Samsung’s phone and Telkomsel subscription bundling which deserve to be paid by monthly credit. Lagi example, Indosat recently has cooperated v Spotify, with a certain price, Indosat’s customer can enjoy Spotify Premium in the parcel <13>.
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Another systems to suppress the biaya and boost revenue is by having actually an interconnection and aktif network bagikan agreement. With this aktif network sharing, in a long run, the telecommunication infrastructure and also operation is expected ini adalah more efficient and sustained. However, no all telecom industri stakeholders agree with this. The to adjust of communication and also informatics in Indonesia suggest a regulation revision for interconnection fee and the network sharing this year. They desire to decrease the interconnection fees (from Rp 285/mins or 0.19 Kr/mins to Rp. 204/mins or 0.14kr/mins) and also make an aktif network sharing become an duty to all operators. Number of operators discovered that the decrement of interconnection fee will give disadvantage and may bring about a high financial loss. The active network sharing proposal has juga been rejected by number of operators. Actually, Indosat and XL have actually already established one version of positif network bagikan which dubbed Multi-Operator Radio accessibility Network (MORAN). In this model, itu operators will share the BTS however still using their own spectrum frequency. Telkomsel is one operator that disagrees through the positif network bagikan concept. Telkomsel, together the largest telecom operator company in Indonesia, founds that pemisah network is not totally fair if another operator melakukan not have actually a uniform circulation location that BTS installation. In Indonesia, telecom company is not commonly available. That is since the technology is mainly centralized in urban (or Java island), yet not in the remote area. In mine opinion, Telkomsel feels the if we are agree with active network sharing, lagi operator hanya become a “free rider” to their infrastructure network with a very kecil fee, compared to Telkomsel that expend high capital expenditure to download the infrastructure. <14>
The interconnection is greatly for suara traffic, while network bagikan is motivated by 4G setup which hanya introduced in 2014 in Indonesia. Other case that happening in Indonesia is, In 2015, ministry of communication and also information finished refining a spectrum assignment in 1800 MHz to serve 4G, prepare auction for 2100 MHz and 2300 MHz. Moreover, they preparing a migration from sama, serupa TV (Television) to digital TV come clean spectrum ~ above 700 MHz and also prepare it because that mobile interaction (currently, that still tangan kedua by television broadcasting). They juga set a aturan of domestic component for LTE equipment. For example, 30% that base terminal component at least should it is in a residential product, and also 20% of subscriber station component is at least a domestic product together well. <15>
In conclusion, Indonesia’s telecom pasar is promptly changing, dynamic and highly competitive. The high numberi of web traffic data need leads come a significant issue: high revenue gap (high differences between infrastructure pengeluaran and revenue). Several new business cases have been introduced to fix the issue: B2B covenant to component/content provider and also acquisition. ~ above the other hand, the regulator juga tries to do a policy which useful for industry, government, and customers. Some rakyat said that Telecom pasar has reached its limits and saturated, however I believe telecom industry will slowly farming in the future, sejak telecom is now acted as a backbone for lagi sector of Industry, and telecom technology ease setiap orang to live anda life. The main tantangan is to discover a new revenue trigger, and kemudian telecom industri might obtain its popularity choose the old days.